Welcome to the Online Clann Tartan Newsletter for February 2005

Board Minutes Staff & Board Directory Guilds
Calendar of Events Maps Event Maps and Notification
Announcements  Captain's Corner Articles


Clann is not doing EITHER of the Winter Carnival Parades this year. Please disregard any mention of them is this newsletter.

Board Elections

Saturday, February 5 at noon we will be holding the Annual Members Meeting. This is your chance to vote on the budget for next year and to vote for your new Board Members. The positions that will be open are:

Vice President
Company Representative

If you're interested in any of these positions but have questions on the duties and responsibilities, please contact a current Board Member for more information. It's not too early to get your nomination in!

The board election information and budget information did not get
included in the January newsletter.  We apologize for that, and are
sending out a special ballot for the Board Positions and Camp budget.
Hard copies will be mailed to eligible voting members - those members
that meet the "active" status.  If you have any questions as to your
status, please contact Mary McKinley, President.
Ballot for the Board Elections; Offices open:

Vice President:                                              Secretary:
Bruce Yoder ___________                           Glenn McDavid ______________

Other _________________                           Other _________________
Company Representative:                                   Camp Budget for 2005: 
 (No one has been nominated)                             Approve

Other ______________________                    Yes _____     No ______

Please make sure that votes are emailed to me, Mary , at Mairi2@juno.com by Feb 3.


Food		 	2004 		2005
Full Day Events
Summer Muster 	   	15 		20
MN Scottish Fair    	15 		30
Tactical* 	   	15 		25
Big Island 	  	61 		75
Mankato 	   	18 		30
Winona  	   	46 		55
Sioux Falls 	     	4
Caledonia  	   	25
Total person days 	$199.00		$235.00
x 5.25		 	$1,044.75       $1,233.75

Half Day Events		2004 		2005
Ramble 			30 		40
Winter Muster 				35
Big Island Fest 			40
Total person days 	$30.00 	   	$115.00
x2.25 		 	$67.50      	$258.75

Civil Air Patrol	3
x5.00 reimbursement	$15.00  

Year Totals 	       $1,127.25	$1,492.50
Budgeted Amount        $2,875.00	$1,500.00
This events attendance was altered from the record to reflect actual numbers

Camp			2004 		2005
Cleaning supplies	$25.00		$40.00
Candles, torches	$132.00		$150.00
New Water Containers			$200.00
Tent bags				$50.00
Organizational supplies			$25.00
			$157.00		$465.00
TOTAL Camp Budget	$3,032.00	$1,965.00

From the desk of your Head Camp Follower

The first thing I can do this month is state with great pleasure that First Footing was a great success. My thanks go out to the following participants. You all made it a wonderfully pleasant day.

Hellen and Eric Ferguson, Judy and Marty L Byers, Jaimie Zaugg, Mark Hansen, Diana Steben, Toria Bolten, Larry Herbison, Betsy Bolton, Joe King, Anthea Cross, Karen Bastien, Maeve Kane, Renee and Chris, Shea Hermes, Elezabeth Johnson, Herb Lindorff, Heidi Johnson, Abby and Cliff Struck, Julie and Bruce Yoder, David Vavereck, Doug Pexa, Mary McKinley, Benthny Bastien, X

A round of applauds to you all.

I am happy to announce a new feature to the news letter. David Vavreck has graciously agreed to run a question and answer column called Baethan at the Moon. Please, make use of this column to ask any questions you may have. The point here is that no question is a silly one unless it is an unasked question.

In February are several fun events. The Albert Lea Historic Faire on February 12th and 13th. This event is a good place to start if you haven't been to a public event that Clann is involved in. This Faire is in doors so you don't have to worry about camping out side. We put on demos and generally discuss life in our time period. If you are at all concerned about doing demos this is a great opportunity to watch how other do it.

Last up for February is Scottish Ramble at the Minnesota Landmark Center on February 19th and 20th.One thing we will need special help with this year is making sure Julie doesn't injure here self.

That is all for now. Hope to see you at events and having fun.

Rob Johnson

Head Camp Follower

Still looking for thoughts on Why We Do What We Do

—and what will make it more fun for you.

What are you looking for in Clann? What can we do better? What are we doing well? Please let us know—we all want this to be a fun, fulfilling experience for everyone.

Send info to Mary McKinley at the previously posted info—snail mail:
Mary McKinley
1363 Jefferson Ave
St Paul, MN 55105-2410


Clann's monthly drill will be held on the third Saturday of the month at Bossen Field by Lievtenant Eric and Hellen's home (5732 Bossen Terrace Apt#2), unless there is a scheduled Clann Event that weekend.
The time is NOON.
For directions, Lievtenant Eric can be contacted at: 612-726-6364 or eric@celticfringe.net


Submissions for the Newsletter!
Items you can submit include research articles, character sketches, and other items pertaining to living history and Scottish Culture. Email your items in either plain text, or MS Word format to newsletter@clanntartan.org or snail mail to our postal address.
Items must be received by the 15th of each month to be considered for inclusion for the upcoming months issue. Mailed submissions will not be returned unless requested. All pertinent submissions will be considered as space permits. All research articles must reference at least three sources. Submissions are NOT edited for spelling or grammar, but may be broken in multiple parts.

Board Minutes Staff & Board Directory Guilds
Calendar of Events Maps Event Maps and Notification
Announcements  Captain's Corner Articles

Board Minutes

Minutes of Clann Tartan Board Meeting

December 6, 2004

In attendance: (Board) Diana Steben, Mary McKinley, Bruce Yoder,

Glenn McDavid

(Staff) Marty Byers, Julie Yoder, Rob Johnson,

Eric Ferguson, Maeve Kane


The minutes from the November Board and Membership meeting were

approved as corrected.



Insurance. Rob Portinga has the current policy. David Vavreck was

going to inquire about Reenactors' insurance, but we have not yet

received any information.




Vice President: Collecting a binder of VP information for Clann


Treasurer: No report

Secretary: No report

Camp Rep: No report

Company Rep: No report

Captain: Good drill in November.

Dance Guild: Recruited new member.

Sword Guild: Trying to schedule Corcoran for Winter practise.

Historic Site: Planning for a work weekend in late December or early

January. Working on permanent latrines. Next (hopefully!), showers.

Music Guild: No report.

Fiber Guild: No report. Jody Jayne will be contacting Diana.

Quartermaster: May be able to have trailer repairs and improvements

done by welding students at Dunwoody, planned for April.

Garage--wood for Dun Gowan has been moved out. Need to build

shelves. We have a source for free wood. Planning for work weekend

in April.

Tent Management tasks: Match poles with canvas. Implement

policy for checkout/checkin of tents.



Airing of the Tartans, Jan. 1, noon, Augsburg Park. Live musket fire


Progressive Dinner, Jan. 1, afternoon-evening.

Winter Muster, Jan. 15: Perry Vining from Big Island will be giving a

presentation in the 2-4 PM time slot. Mary has the muster records.

We need more cockades.

St. Paul Winter Carnival Parades: Rob Portinga has the information.

Albert Lea Historic Fair, Feb. 12-13. Mall at Albert Lea. Not a paid

event, but Perry will let us charge for demos.

Scottish Ramble: Feb. 19-20. Looks good.

Tartan Day. April 6 (Wednesday). No information yet. Not a paid


Minnesota Scottish Faire. July 9. The proposal about reimbursement

to the three reenactment groups (See November Minutes) has been

forwarded to the Faire Organizers.


The Board would like to offer a special commendation to David Vavreck

for his two years of service as Captain, for his extensive research on

a wide range of topics, and for his many years of service to Clann.

Meeting adjourned at 8:15. Next meeting Jan. 3, at the Yoders'.



Board Minutes Staff & Board Directory Guilds
Calendar of Events Maps Event Maps and Notification
Announcements  Captain's Corner Articles

Board & Staff

If you need to contact someone associated with Clann Tartan, here is where you find out how. If you are unsure who to contact, you can always email us at: info@clanntartan.org

Board Members

President Mary McKinley 651-699-6853 mairi2@juno.com
Vice President Bruce Yoder 651-698-8375 bruceyoder@juno.com
Secretary Glenn McDavid 651-490-1842 gmcdavid@comcast.net
Treasurer Rob Portinga 651-253-4506 rob@portinga.org
Quarter Master Herb Lindorff 612-827-4440 deeptinker@hotmail.com
Camp Rep. Diana Steben 612-728-1189 Rillaspins@aol.com
Company Rep. Brenda Bartel 651-335-5097 socks142@aol.com


Captain Marty Byers 651.483.1173 mjlbyers@msn.com
Lieutenant Eric Ferguson 612.726.6364 eric@celticfringe.net
Head Campfollower Rob Johnson 612.702.4274  roguerpj@mn.rr.com
Assistant Head Campfollower Julie Yoder 651.698.8375 julieyoder@juno.com
Goodwife Judy Byers 651.483.1173 mjlbyers@msn.com
Goodwife Maeve Kane 952.461.4666  

Board Minutes Staff & Board Directory Guilds
Calendar of Events Maps Event Maps and Notification
Announcements  Captain's Corner Articles


Sword Guild:

I am now taking names of MEMBERS, who are interested in learning the period correct way to wield the blades we would have used. The methods will be totally Scottish and /or common to the Scottish Island.

But, first I need your name, mailing address, phone number and what type of sword you are interested in...and, do you have such a sword. When I have this information, we will set up a date and time to get together for our first exercise.

I hope to use some of what we learn in a skit or two during the coming years. The more blades we have to be used correctly the better we will be for the public.

So, get me this information soon and let's get started.

Marty L. Byers


Drummers continue to meet at 11 am the third Saturday of each month at Eric and Hellen's, followed by Regimental Drill at Noon. The Regiment owns two drums, but drummers are requested to get their own drumsticks.

A note for soldiers - according to the articles of war, it is a crime punishable by death not to learn the drum calls. Be forewarned.

We have set up a yahoo group for the Corps at http://launch.groups.yahoo.com/group/clannfifeanddrum/ so we can communicate without clogging up non corps folks' e-mail.

Again, drummers will work primarily on period military music for the time being.

All are welcome - no experience neccessary.

Anyone interested in joining up contact Clann's Music Chair at:

David Vavreck


1st & 3rd Wednesdays
One Grenoble Ave, Inver Grove Heights, MN 55076

The community center for Skyline Village, on the east side of Concord St. at 75th St in Inver Grove Heights. About 2.5 miles south of I494

2nd & 4th Tuesdays
Saint Christopher's Episcopal Church, 2300 N Hamline Ave. in St. Paul.

It is at the northeast corner of Highway 36 and Hamline Avenue (Hamline is between Snelling and Lexington). The church is actually encircled by the highway entrance ramp.
The Dance Guild gathers weekly from 7PM-9PM to learn and practice historic Scottish country dances.
For more information call:

Mary at 651-699-6853 or Julie at 651-698-8375

It's a great place to meet people !

Other Guilds

Want to learn about wool spinning, weaving, or dying? Diana Steben (651-489-2881) Kali Pederson (651-730-5437 ) and Sandy Borrmann (651-489-2881) organize the Fiber Guild.

Clann Tartan has our own historic site near Duluth MN. Dun Gowan is an ongoing project, which is the site of Gaffneyis Annual Tactical in July. We are finishing the fort and beginning the construction of a village this year. Contact David Vavreck at 612-378-1973 or baethan1630@yahoo.com for further information, or to volunteer to help.

Board Minutes Staff & Board Directory Guilds
Calendar of Events Maps Event Maps and Notification
Announcements  Captain's Corner Articles

Captains Corner


Board Minutes Staff & Board Directory Guilds
Calendar of Events Maps Event Maps and Notification
Announcements  Captain's Corner Articles


Baethan at the Moon

At the request of the Board of Directors, this new monthly column will address members’ questions about, well, anything related to what we in Gaffneyis Regiment do. What is event X like? Are thingamajigs period? How do you make a whatsahoozits? Where do you get a fribber-frabber? Members are requested to send questions about anything pertinent to Baethan (David Vavreck), who can be reached at 612-378-1973, baethan1630@yahoo.com, or 1036 24th Avenue SE, Mpls MN 55414.

Rob Johnson asks: How can I survive the chill arctic blasts expected for the Winter Carnival Parades and such?

Baethan says: Funny you should mention that; I just decided to do an article on period cold weather gear, intending for it to be published in the Spring,, leaving plenty of time for manufacture/acquisition before next Fall’s events. But this answer will help tide you over until that article comes out.

The rule for an event such as a parade is if it doesn’t show, it’s okay. If it does show, try to make it at least appear correct. And the Torchlight Parade occurs after dark, so appearance is even less of an issue.

1. Wear long johns. If you are wearing a kilt, make sure you also have knee-length hose to cover up the lower portion. Bonus tip: one can put in a French-cut neckline in long johns tops, which can then be worn at events under your sark (i.e. shirt or chemise) at living history events without fear of it showing at the collar. Cut the neckline into a large “u” shape - large enough so as not to show whether or not your sark is buttoned at the neck - and hem it down.

2. Wear a wool cap. Bonnets are great (for men, at least), but there were also several styles of knit cap made in our period. If you do not have a correct Monmouth cap or whatever, any short knit cap will do, but stick to solid earth tones. Avoid day glow, logos, pom-poms etc.

3. Wear layers. Several shirts, skirts, pairs of socks, etc. really help. As long as the outside layer looks okay, no problem.

4. If dressing as a man, wear a pair of knee britches under your kilt. If you are not wearing your kilt, use it as a cloak. These tricks are even period correct.

5. Wear wool or leather gloves or mittens. Modern driving gloves are obviously not period correct, but this is just a parade, not a living history event. Our rules can be relaxed somewhat. Unlined leather doesn’t hold in much heat, although it does a bang-up job stopping the wind.

6. Get some of those little instant heat thingies to put in your mittens or shoes. They can really help. They are available at sporting goods stores, etc. Remember that your hands get colder when they are carrying something than if they are not, and most of you will be carrying something at the parades.

7. Women began wearing muffs around 1630. They were small at first, and often hung from a cord around the neck. Made of fur or fur and wool.

8. Borrow extra stuff from older members - we often have lots of period gear. I, for example, own 4 doublets (and 6 pair of period footwear) and cannot possibly wear them all at once! Ask your staff to help hook you up with spare clothing.

9. Wear armor. Steel makes a great windbreak.

Hope this helps.



Two Knitting Patterns

By Maeve Kane

The Monmouth Cap

The Monmouth Cap is of a type worn throughout Europe from the medieval period through the Thirty Years' War. I have based my pattern on an SCA website (http://polaris.umuc.edu/%7Ejthies/sca/knitmonmouthcap.html) as well as the site of a Welsh museum containing one of the earliest Monmouth caps (http://www.gtj.org.uk/item.php?lang=en&id=7998&t=1).

Monmouth caps are mentioned in Act 4, Scene 7 of Shakespere's King Henry V:

Welshmen did good service in a
garden where leeks did grow, wearing leeks in their
Monmouth caps; which, your majesty know, to this
hour is an honourable badge of the service

These directions are given for an average sized (meaning my sized) person. The caps I've made for grown men usually need a few extra stitches cast on (so that the total equals 65-70 sts). If you can, measure the person that will be wearing the cap, and multiply that measurement by three to find the necessary number of stitches. Make sure that how ever many stitches you decide to cast on is evenly divisible by some number. Twelve, ten and eight usually works well, because otherwise the point decreases too slowly or too fast and gives the wrong shape.

Yarn: 1 skein Brown Sheep Co.'s Lamb's Pride Bulky. I've used grey, white and natural brown. My inclination is to stick with natural colors, as I've seen no evidence that Monmouth caps were colored.

Five size 8 American double pointed knitting needles.

Gauge: 3 sts. per inch x 5 rows per inch

Cast on 60 stitches leaving a three inch tail, distributing so that there are fifteen stitches on each needle. Work in sts for about an inch and a half, or 7 rows.

Transfer these stitches to a holder or other piece of yarn (a contrasting color works well) so that they won't fall off while you're making the band and cut the yarn. At the beginning of your knitting, where you cast on, pick up sixty stitches (or however many to equal what you cast on) on the purl side of the knitting, distributing as before. Knit these in sts so that the purl sides are facing for seven rows or however many equals an inch and a half for your yarn.

At the end of the seventh row, flip the stitches on your holder up so that the purl sides are touching (I pin mine in place while I work with size three knitting needles). Being careful not to twist the knitting, match up the stitches and knit one from each end of the knitting together. When you have sixty stitches at the end of the row instead of 120, continue in sts for three to five inches, or however wide the palm of the person who will wear it is.

If you cast on 60 sts, begin decreasing thus: *k11, k2tog, repeat from * to the end of the row, k one row plain, *k10, k2tog, repeat from * to end of row. Continue like this, knitting one row of decreases and one row plain until you have eight stitches left, and then cut your yarn and pass it through the remaining stitches, drawing them tight.

To make the loop characteristic of Monmouth caps, wrap the tail you left when you cast on in the manner shown in the photos. (I'm sorry, I'm not sure how to describe the process.)

Attach the end of this loop to the base of the loop where it attaches to the hat. I'm not sure yet how to make the button characteristic of Monmouth caps, but I will post this when I figure it out.

The Welsh Wig

A welsh wig is an elusive little hat that I've been having trouble finding documentation for. From what I've been able to find, a welsh wig is a relativly unfelted hat with bits of unspun fleece knitted into the cap.

Gunnister man's welsh wig is lightly felted, probably from wear.

Guage: 8 sts and 11 rows per inch.

Yarn: probably slightly heavier than a sport weight and slightly lighter than a bulky. A worsted might be just a little too small.

Knit in the same manner as the Monmouth cap, without the double-thickness brim, button, or loop at the bottom, while knitting in short (an inch long) lengths of clean, unspun fleece, or possibly short, teased lengths of a loosely spun yarn like Lamb's Pride Bulky.


Writing implements and other literacy-related objects

David Vavreck

This paper deals with the objects connected to literacy in the 17th century; literacy levels of the period will not be addressed.


Stylus: a tool generally of bronze, iron, wood, or bone was used to scratch writing upon a wax tablet (see below). Stylii had a sharp end with which to write. Erasing was done by simply rubbing out the writing with the opposite, flattened end. If the stylus was not made of metal, it often had a metal tip in order to get clean lines.

Handwriting sample from very early 17th c, complete with a contemporary example of a student’s practice - in this case, a very young Prince Charles (Printed in Tuer p 10 - 11)

Another period handwriting sample - this one by Martin Billingsley, a penmanship master, from his The Pen’s Excellencie, or The Secretaries Delighte, London 1618. (Printed in Tuer p 11 - 12)

Quill Pens: in use from at least the early 7th century; Saint Isidore of Seville (c. 560 – 636) is the first to mention them. Quills were made from a large feather, preferably goose, swan, or crow (although many other species were used), with - contrary to popular belief - the fletching almost always stripped off. The writing end was cut with a small, very sharp tool called a penknife. Common until the early to mid 19th century, when they were replaced by the fountain pen (invented ca. 1800) (Encyclopædia Britannica - hereafter, EB - “Feather” and “Pen”, mostly). Beth Gilgun has a good article on how to make your own quill her Tidings from the Eighteenth Century (see bibliography).

Pencil: first mentioned in documentary sources in 1565, they did not assume their modern form - but without paint and eraser - until the 19th century (EB “Pencil”). In 1564, a mineral deposit was found in Borrowdale, Cumbria that was so pure it could be sawed into sheets, then sawed again into square rods for use in writing. This substance was named plumbago - “that which acts (writes) like lead”, and London's Guild of Pencilmakers had a world monopoly on this mineral, hand carving wooden cases for the “leads”. It was not until 1779 that plumbago was found to be a form of carbon, not lead, which shortly thereafter resulted in plumbago being renamed graphite, from the Greek for “to write,” but we still refer to leaded pencils. Pencil leads were apparently square until the mid 19th century.

Artists' Pencils: 17th century and earlier artworks called “pencil drawings” were made using metal rods – lead, silver, bronze, etc. on specially prepared paper; this is apparently the only case in our period in which “pencil leads” actually could have been lead, although (as mentioned just above) graphite was believed to be a form of lead until 1779 (EB “Pencil Drawing”).

Inkwell: a container, often ceramic or metal, within which one stores ink. When made from horn or antler, it is called an inkhorn.

Pounce Shaker: a container, usually ceramic, used to sprinkle sand or similar material upon fresh ink in order to soak up the excess and speed up drying time. When dry, the sand was poured back into the shaker (reduce, reuse, recycle).

Blotting Paper: This was a usually gray, coarse, thick paper, first mentioned in 1465. It was carefully placed on the writing surface upon finishing writing in order to absorb excess ink and prevent smearing (EB “Paper”).


Waxed tablets: in use from at least the Old Testament era (see, for example, 4 Kings 21:13) until the mid 17th century, these were thin pieces of wood out of which a shallow depression was hollowed, which was then filled with (usually) black beeswax. They were used to teach children to write, as well as by scholars, clerks, and others to keep notes, write out rough drafts before committing them to ink, etc.

There could be several tablets attached together, called a codex (from which we get “code” as in law code, tax code, etc.) for writing longer texts (EB “Codex”).

Slate: a tablet made of slate, usually placed in a frame of wood, common from the 13th to the early 20th century. Writing was done with a slate pencil and was erased just like a chalkboard. Common figures of speech include “wipe the slate clean” and “start with a clean slate”.

Scotland is so full of slate that it was often used for roofing.

Parchment: skin, generally from sheep or goats - not that yellowish paper so readily available.

Vellum: skin from calf, lamb, or kid. Considerably higher quality (and more expensive) than parchment.

Parchment and vellum have always been expensive. By our period, they were used mostly for official documents such as diplomas, wills, contracts, etc.

Ink does not soak into either parchment or vellum; it dries on the surface, which greatly increases its drying time. Erasures could be made by scratching off the dried ink, then re-smoothing that portion of the skin.

I have found only a single modern source for parchment and vellum - Carbisdale Deerskins and Lambskins, which uses sheep and lamp, respectively. They're even Scottish. http://web.ukonline.co.uk/khamblet/

Paper: only recently (at least as far as 1630 is concerned) becoming common and affordable. This, more so than the invention of the printing press, is what led to a major increase in literacy in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries (EB “Paper”). Often made from rags or old fishing nets (reduce, reuse, recycle – my father remembered the ragman making his weekly rounds in South Minneapolis in the Early 1940s).


Abecedaria: tablets upon which the alphabet (period term is abece/abc) is printed, engraved, carved, or whatever. Often of lead, wood, or clay. They were in use throughout Europe from at least the Roman period (Tuer p 274)

Hornbook: a usually battledore-shaped (i.e. like a small ping pong paddle, only with square corners) wooden tablet, with a piece of paper upon which are printed the alphabet in upper and lower case (called great and small letters in period), the Lord's Prayer, and occasionally other bits and pieces such as the numerals and vowel-consonant combinations. They are covered with a very thin piece of horn to protect it from grubby little fingers. Except in Scotland, the alphabet is preceded by a cross (see below); the student would pray or at least cross her/himself to request God’s help learning before beginning the lesson. Hornbooks were popular from the mid 15th to the early 19th century, but apparently only in English-speaking areas (England, Scotland, America). The back is sometimes decorated with a picture of Saint George and the Dragon, an equestrian portrait of the reigning monarch (from Charles I onward), a floral pattern, etc. In 16th and 17th century examples, the handle is often pierced for hanging from the child's girdle or from around the neck.

The followers of John Knox apparently thought it a great sin to request divine assistance in learning or to be reminded that the beginning of wisdom is the fear of the Lord (Prov 1:7), so Scots hornbooks are cross-less. Also, there is a case recorded by Thomas Morton, a Puritan, who in 1622 brought a multitude of hornbooks across the pond to teach the “Salvages” [sic] of New England. This individual blotted out all the crosses on these hornbooks “for feare least the people of the land should become Idolaters” (Morton's “New English Canaan, 1622, quoted in Tuer 464 – 466).

Fescue: a hand-held pointer often of bone or wood, although a slender pointed stick also serves nicely. Used to point out individual letters for the young scholar to name (Tuer p 24). Also known as a fetty.

Wooden alphabet blocks from Sir Hugh Plat’s Jewel House of Art and Nature, London 1653 (printed in Tuer p 63)

Wooden Blocks: with one letter per face, they are period for us, provided the letter forms date from our period, and that they are not dayglow. Four blocks, with six letters each, would contain all 24 letters of the alphabet (although k, x, y, and z were already added to our alphabet by the 17th century, j and v are late additions). In 1653, Sir John Plat specifically suggests that they have the “smal [sic] letters” (i.e. lower case) (quoted in Tuer, p 63).

Primer: beginners' grammar and reading books, often with primarily religious material. In use from the early 14th century (Tuer p 306ff).

Bible: often the first book one would read upon having mastered the alphabet and grammar. King James' Anglican Bible was issued in 1611, but there were numerous other English versions available as well, including the Catholic Douay Bible (OT 1609 - 1610, NT 1582), the Calvinist Geneva Bible of 1560, which was also popular amongst Puritans and other related groups, as well as several other Bible versions. All Bibles contained the Apocrypha until the late 19th century when protestants removed 14 books and portions of others from the Old Testament.

As the Presbyterians made no effort to send ministers to the Highlands until the 1690s, and John Knox was fundamentally opposed to the use of any vernacular apart from Queen's English (he was in Queen Elizabeth's employ, after all), there was no effort to publish the Bible in Gàidhlig in our period.

There was apparently no Scots English Bible until 1983, and that was only the New Testament. The translator of “The New Testament in Scots” has only one character speak “proper” English in the whole work – Satan (Christie).


English composer Thomas Morley wrote “Christes crosse be my Speed”, a musical version of the hornbook, in his Plaine and easie Introduction to Practical Musicke, etc. first published in 1597. The title means “God, help me (learn)”.


Gingerbread Hornbook: carved wooden molds were used to make, well, I'll bet you can figure that out. It could be a game - as the child names each letter, s/he gets to nibble it off the cookie.


Two forms of educational discipline are well documented in our period for students who are too slow in their learning. The first is the use of the rod. The second is a holdover of the medieval sense of justice; s/he was struck on the head with the hornbook, as if the concussion would impart the knowledge contained on the hornbook.


Sealing Wax and Seal: Melted wax was dripped upon a scroll, envelope, or whatever, and impressed with the seal while still mushy. Although this would not necessarily stop a spy, it would at least demonstrate to the recipient that the document had been read. Seals were very common from the medieval to the modern period.


Christie, Bryan. “The Devil Speaks English”. Reprinted in The Highlander magazine, 22.1 p 39 Jan/Feb 1984

Encyclopædia Britannica, 1961 edition. several articles, including “Codex”, “Feather”, “Paper”, “Pen”, “Pencil”, “Pencil Drawing”

Gilgun, Beth. “Quill Pens” pp 238 – 241 in her Tidings from the 18th Century Scurlock Publishing Co.., Texarkana 1993.

Tuer, Andrew W. History of the Horn Book. Reprint of 1897 edition by Blom, Inc. New York 1968

Board Minutes Staff & Board Directory Guilds
Calendar of Events Maps Event Maps and Notification
Announcements  Captain's Corner Articles

Calendar of Events

Be sure to contact your staff
if you plan on attending a show event. Try to give at least a ten day notice when possible. This allows proper planning for the feeding of our members, and in some cases is required by event organizers to allow entry as a participant.
You can call any of the staff members listed, or send an email to staff@clanntartan.org.

February 2005

Annual Meeting
& General Elections
NOON Corcoran Park Hall
Albert Lea Historic Faire
Albert Lea Historic Faire
Night at the Pub
7PM @ Molly Quinn's in Minneapolis 
Scottish Ramble at
the Minnesota Landmark Center
St. Paul 
Scottish Ramble at
the Minnesota Landmark Center
St. Paul 

March 2005

Night at the Pub
7PM @ Molly Quinn's
in Minneapolis 

Board Minutes Staff & Board Directory Guilds
Calendar of Events Maps Event Maps and Notification
Announcements  Captain's Corner Articles


Map to Inver Grove Heights location- Dance Map to St. Paul location St. Christopher's- Dance
Map to Board Meetings
Bruce and Julie Yoder's Home
Map to Board/Quarterly/Annual Meetings
Corcoran Park, Minneapolis

Board Minutes Staff & Board Directory Guilds
Calendar of Events Maps Event Maps and Notification
Announcements  Captain's Corner Articles

Event Maps and Notification

Board Minutes Staff & Board Directory Guilds
Calendar of Events Maps Event Maps and Notification
Announcements  Captain's Corner Articles